EISA identified CSOs partners with whom we will work with and support for the 2019 electoral processes, namely the Association for Development and Society (ADS), which works in partnership with the Catholic Church of Mozambique; Solidariedade Moçambique; Sociedade Aberta; Civil Society Capacity Building and Learning Centre (CESC).
In accordance with EISA's policy, each organisation underwent a due diligence process, which will inform the scope of collaboration with them. EISA Head Office facilitated training on the EISA financial reporting requirements with the organisations.
As a complement to the planned electoral activities, a Platform to Support Electoral Transparency, an innovative initiative by EISA and its partners, with a strong technological component, was established, providing space for stakeholders such as partners, political parties, the media, civil and international observers and CNE to access information as it was sent directly from the PVT exercise, general observation of the voting process such as opening and closing of polling stations, the presence of party agents/observers, and performance of electoral staff, etc. Technologically, to capture data, the EISA popola software system was used. The initiative was of great interest by media and EISA donor, as it brought together various civil society initiatives and facilitated access to information on the process, mainly by the media and international observers.The centre received extensive media coverage, was visited by donors and created a hub of election information and data.
Despite 3000 citizen observers not receiving accreditation, EISA was able to conduct the PVT as planned with some reframing of the sample, but safeguarding its scientific validity. The planned PVT in three affected provinces ie Zambézia, Tete and Nampula, was only possible by merging of the provincial sample with that of the national one. This enabled the national sample to take place.
The preliminary report of the PVT was finalised by 20 October and immediately shared with the four presidential candidates Filipe Nyusi, for Frelimo; Ossufo Momade, for Renamo; Daviz Simango, for MDM; and Mário Albino, for AMUSI, the CNE and Constitutional Council and with the general public and media two days thereafter. The final PVT report was ready and shared with the same by 11 November 2019 and made available to the public and the media the following day.
EISA supported five Mozambican civil society organisations to deploy approximately 748 civil society observers to 161 districts in all 11 provinces of the country to observe the electoral campaign. Under the NMFA project and as part of the general observation, the Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD), in partnership with the Catholic Church, observed the provinces of Maputo City, Inhambane, Sofala, Manica, Tete, Zambézia, Cabo Delgado and Niassa; Solidariedade Moçambique observers observed in Nampula; Sociedade Aberta (SA) observed in Maputo province; and Civil Society Learning and Capacity Centre (CESC) in the Gaza province. CDD was in charge of Tete and Cabo Delgado; JOINT worked in Zambézia; and Solidariedade Moçambique in Nampula province. In this way, with EISA's support, the entire country was covered.
Following the voter registration observation deployment, EISA convened a meeting with partners in the first week of July to assess their performance on the one hand, and EISA's support on the other. The overall assessment was positive, although co-ordination among the various CSO partners was highlighted as an area that needs strengthening before the deployment of observers to the campaign period and election day.
A Code of Conduct for observers, drafted by EISA, in consultation with partners, was presented, discussed, approved and signed by all partners. It aimed at informing a sound and professional observation, with reference to principles of transparency, equality and equity, good faith, coordination and solidarity, mutual accountability, communication and ownership.
EISA supported four Mozambican civil society organisations deploy 480 civil society observers to 161 districts in all 11 provinces of the country to observe the voter registration process. The Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD), in partnership with the Catholic Church, observed the provinces of Maputo City, Inhambane, Sofala, Manica, Tete, Zambézia, Cabo Delgado and Niasse; Solidariedade Moçambique observers observed in Nampula; Sociedade Aberta (SA) observed in Maputo province; and Civil Society Learning and Capacity Centre (CESC) in the Gaza.
The observers used and were trained in the EISA popola system with EISA providing technical advice to our partners. The IDEA funded CSO, JOINT, was included in this exercise, with JOINT deploying 161 observers (one per district., The CSOs voters' observation report was launched in Pemba, Cabo Delgado, in 5 July 2019. The CNE, represented by Mr. Paulo Cuinica, External Relations Coordinator, attended the launch at the invitation of EISA.
It is through the CSOs supported by EISA that during voters' registration the discrepancies (mainly the Gaza province) in the voters' roll mentioned in the overview, were identified and brought to the attention of the public, media, STAE, CNE and INE.
In preparation for the 2019 general election, EISA Mozambique, in partnership with local civil society organizations, conducted a two-day training of trainers involving 20 national trainers, to train observers in all the provinces.
More than 700 observers will be deployed to observe the election campaign throughout the campaign period in all 161 districts of the country.
EISA supported Votar Moçambique and Solidariedade Moçambique in deploying observers for the partial repetition of the local election in the municipality of Marromeu, Sofala province.
Each of the two organisations deployed one observer to the eight polling stations in which the election was repeated. A PVT was undertaken by those organisations, under the supervision of a small coordination team supported by EISA.
EISA Mozambique focused its civil society activities on support to citizen observation efforts for the municipal elections. This was done through EISA assisting citizen observation platforms with observation planning, co-ordination, and training of trainers, as well as with the replication of training at the local level and deployment of observers on election day. Altogether EISA supported the training and deployment of more than 500 citizen observers belonging to the JOINT/IMD, Solidariedade Moçambique and Women's Forum networks.
EISA Mozambique supported citizen observation efforts for the second round of the Nampula mayoral by-election in close collaboration with the Platform for Election Observation, a new coalition of seven Mozambican CSOs set up to observe electoral processes. EISA Mozambique provided refresher training to 86 citizen observers in election day observation methodology and 54 polling centre supervisors on how to operate the popola system to conduct a PVT. EISA also managed the collection and aggregation of data for the PVT using the popola system. The PVT exercise was very successful - within 3 hours of closing the polls, our system successfully pointed to final election result, which was confirmed once all polling stations reported their results and they were aggregated by the EMB.
Ahead of Municipal elections scheduled for 10 October 2018, EISA Mozambique, in close collaboration with Elections and Political Processessupport for political party poll watching and to civil society electoral initiatives, deployed a team of international short-term observers to partially observe the voter registration process.
The mission, comprised of 11 observers, was deployed in two rounds: 14 to 25 March and 13 to 22 May. The mission engaged the EMB and observed both the beginning and end of voter registration in 21 municipalities in 7 provinces. (See Declaração Preliminar · Preliminary Statement; 19 Oct 2019).
EISA Mozambique supported citizen observation efforts for the Nampula mayoral by-election, in close collaboration with the Platform for Election Observation, a new coalition of seven Mozambican CSOs set up to observe electoral processes. EISA Mozambique trained 420 citizen observers in election day observation methodology.
Of these, 54 were given additional training as polling centre supervisors and on how to operate the popola system to conduct a PVT. EISA also managed the collection and aggregation of data for the PVT using the popola system.
This was the second time that EISA used popola or its equivalent to conduct a municipal PVT (the first time was in 3 municipalities in 2013 also in Mozambique), but it was the first time that such a large number of polling stations - 401 - was covered.
The exercise was very successful - within 3 hours of closing the polls, with 25% of the data aggregated, our system successfully pointed to final election result, which was confirmed once all polling stations reported their results.
EISA Mozambique was able to engage with citizen observation groups to begin preparations for the observation of a mayoral by-election scheduled for January 2018.
EISA takes an electoral-cycle approach to election observation, and regards the observation and assessment of all the main phases of an electoral process as an important exercise for the overall evaluation of elections. In this spirit EISA Mozambique conducted observation of the 2018 voter registration process after realising that no other national or international entity was planning to do so. Therefore in the last quarter of 2017 EISA Mozambique began the planning process for observation of voter registration due to begin in March 2018.
EISA Mozambique engaged with two citizen election initiatives to discuss and agree on areas of co-operation:
In 2016, the main platform for citizen observation in Mozambique, the Electoral Observatory, was dissolved, after 13 years of existence. This created a serious gap in the capacity of Mozambican civil society to observe electoral processes. EISA Mozambique initiated efforts to facilitate the establishment of a new platform. On 10 February 2017, a group of 8 Mozambican CSOs convened by EISA, met to start the process of creating the new citizen observation network.
The EISA-Mozambique office conducted citizen and international observer training for 10 national trainers of the Electoral Observatory, 23 TCC observers, 30 observers from the Mozambique Lawyers Association, 22 EU LTOs, 50 AU observers, 90 SADC observers, 25 SADC Electoral Commission Forum (ECF) observers and 60 Diplomatic Watch observers. In this way, observers from a broad range of institutions and organisations were equipped with relevant information to enable them to execute their observation responsibilities effectively
The EISA-Mozambique office further assisted the Electoral Observatory (OE), the largest coalition of citizen observation organisations in Mozambique, with parallel vote tabulation (PVT). EISA provided technical support to the sampling process, the selection of sampled polling stations, observer checklists, training of trainers, and results analysis and reporting.
On Election Day, the EISA-Mozambique office received all the OE citizen observer data related to the opening, voting, closing and counting processes, analysed and aggregated it, and drafted the four communiqués issued during the day by the OE leadership. A total of 2,107 polling stations were selected for the PVT sample, with a 2% margin of error.
About 300 polling stations did not report their results due to organisational challenges and a lack of observer accreditation. However, the missing polling stations were equally spread through all provinces, and therefore did not significantly affect the randomness of the sample, although it increased slightly its margin of error. The PVT results validated the official aggregation of the polling results within the margin of error.
EISA further supported the training and deployment of 265 citizen observers from the Electoral observatory for the observation of voter registration in the 53 municipalities in Mozambique.
600 citizen observers were trained by EISA for the collection and transmission of observer data on Election Day, including election results for a parallel vote tabulation exercise. For the first time, EISA made use of its mobile methodology outside of its own continental missions, providing citizen observers in Mozambique with smartphones loaded with the ODK software to collect and send observation data in real-time. It can be stated that the electronic forms used by the observers were developed by EISA.
EISA also supported the PVT in another five municipalities with SMS methodology. The PVT results in one municipality were instrumental in assisting the Constitutional Council in deciding an electoral dispute, which resulted in the Council annulling the elections in Gurué and have them repeated due to serious irregularities in the tabulation of results.
Observers and CSOs alike received well the new technology, as it allowed fast collection of data and made it easier to send the data to the PVT control centre.
Transparency and credibility of elections increased through parallel vote counting in one municipal by-election.
The EISA Mozambique office assisted the Electoral Observatory, a coalition of domestic observation organisations, in conducting a full parallel count in the municipal by-election in the city of Inhambane on April 18 2012. The parallel count covered all 54 polling stations and the processing of results was concluded by midnight, 6 hours after the closing of the polls. The parallel count results confirmed the official results released later on April 19 by the EMB. There were only two parties competing in the election: the ruling Frelimo party, which won the election, but went from 91% in 2008 to 78.5% in 2012, and the newcomer MDM, which got 21.5% of the vote, against 9% that the combined opposition obtained in 2008.
EISA's Elections and Political Processes, as part of it's support for political party poll watching and to civil society electoral initiatives, organized a series of training of election observers in a number of African states that were inclusive of Mozambique, Chad, Kenya, Madagascar, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The training was aimed at preparing a pool of observers who may be called upon to participate in future observer missions (EOMs) during elections.
The workshops were attended by representatives of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs) and political parties. Over 300 observers in total were trained in the workshops that took place in these countries. The aim of involving all of the mentioned individual groups is to further improve the structure of elections, and to enhance election education in African countries and its citizens.
EISA continued to strengthen its partnership with the Mozambican Electoral Observatory and provide leadership in civil society efforts to increase electoral credibility and transparency.
The EISA programme in Mozambique in 2009 was dominated by the electoral process that led to the presidential, legislative and provincial elections held on 28 October 28 2009. Therefore, most activities implemented throughout the year - training, technical assistance, debates, and media events - were related to that process, especially as through partnerships with, and technical assistance to, local institutions in civil society.
In collaboration with the Electoral Observatory, EISA has been involved in parallel vote tabulation exercises, increasing its own expertise in this area. Earlier in the year, in collaboration with the Electoral Observatory, EISA conducted a parallel vote tabulation exercise in the second round election for mayor of the northern city of Nacala, Mozambique, held on 11 February. In the first round, in November 2008, no candidate obtained the necessary absolute majority and a run-off between the Frelimo and Renamo candidates was required. The Parallel Vote Tabulation (pvt) was conducted with 198 observers, who observed the voting and counting process and collected results from all 99 polling stations. Counting ended on average at around midnight and, by the early hours of the morning, the PVT results were out. The official results, which gave the Frelimo candidate the victory in the run-off, coincided with the PVT numbers.
A similar exercise was carried out for the presidential, legislative and provincial elections held on 28 October 2009. Based on a random statistical sample of 997 polling stations, out of a total of 12,851, the PVT was conducted with the assistance of 997 domestic observers. EISA designed the operation, developed the IT programmes and database to collect and process the results, and provided the technical training to the observers. The differences between the official results and the PVT results for the three presidential candidates were less than 1% (0.26%, 0.38% and 0.93% respectively).
Prior to the election, on the 31st of March and the 1st of April 1 2009, EISA organised a technical workshop on PVT experiences in Africa in order to draw lessons learned and best practices, and strengthen EISA's capacity in this field. Representatives from Mozambique, Ghana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe shared their PVT experiences. Participants from the Côte d'Ivoire and DRC also attended to learn from those countries that have already put in practice parallel vote tabulation exercises. EISA Mozambique used lessons from the workshop to conduct the PVT in the general elections of 28 October, especially the Ghanaian experience of using special software and coded cell-phone messages to transmit results from the polling station to the command centre.
EISA Mozambique participated in an Evaluation Team contracted by UNDP Malawi to conduct an Outcomes Assessment of the donor-funded and UNDP-executed Elections Support Project to the Malawian electoral process of May 2009.
May & Nov 2009
Between May and November 2009, EISA's Elections and Political Processes, as part of it's support for political party poll watching and to civil society electoral initiatives, held two workshops for CSOs. The first two workshops were conducted by EISA, as a member of a joint partnership between International IDEA and other partners of the Network for Enhanced Electoral and Democratic Support (NEEDS) III project. The project is aimed at training domestic observer groups from selected countries which are beneficiaries of the European Union (EU) electoral assistance.
The training focused on consolidating election observation methodology in line with international and regional standards and to improve domestic observers' capabilities through the development of a common approach in the recruitment and training of observers. The first training took place in May 2009 in Randburg, South Africa, and was conducted for representatives of CSOs involved in citizen observation in their respective countries from Mozambique, Burundi, Ghana, Kenya, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe, Algeria, Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. The second training was held in Dakar, Senegal, in November 2009 and was conducted for 23 representatives of CSOs from Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Republic), Côte d'Ivoire, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
EISA;s Elections and Political Processes, as part of it's support for political party poll watching and to civil society electoral initiatives, held a training workshop on election observation for representatives of CSOs from Africa. Participants were drawn from Mozambique, Burundi, Algeria, Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. The objective of the workshop was to ensure that African CSOs gradually develop a common approach in election observation as well as to ensure that electoral observation in Africa has a real impact on the democratic development agenda.
The workshop took place in August 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. By the end of the training, participants indicated that they had gained a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the value of EISA's election observation methodology.
Mozambique will hold its 3rd municipal elections on 19 November 2008. 43 mayoral posts and seats in 43 municipal assemblies will be disputed. A combination of parties, coalitions and civic groups, as well as party-backed and independent candidates are competing.
EISA, in collaboration with the Electoral Observatory, a local coalition of eight civil society organisations, conducted a parallel vote tabulation exercise in 11 of the 43 municipal races. In this effort, the Observatory deployed 650 domestic observers in the 13 municipalities who observed the voting and counting and collected the results from 650 polling stations (see Interim Report [PDF document]
EISA, in collaboration with the Electoral Observatory, conducted a parallel vote tabulation (PVT) exercise during the November 19 municipal elections. The PVT was conducted in thirteen of the 43 Mozambican municipalities. In the selected municipalities, the electoral contest was expected to be tightly fought and/or there was a history of political conflict during electoral processes. In the cities of Beira and Matola the PVT was conducted on the basis of a random sample of polling stations, and in the remaining eleven municipalities the PVT was based on the collection of tally sheets from all polling stations to produce a full parallel count. This methodology was chosen due to the fact that these eleven municipalities are too small for a sample to be used.
Around 650 observers, recruited by the Electoral Observatory and co-trained by EISA, were involved in the exercise. Besides training and technical advice, EISA also hosted and managed the central command post and results database. This PVT exercise proved to be quite critical for the transparency and credibility of the elections. When the municipal electoral commissions released the provisional results, a week after the voting, the Nacala city commission gave Frelimo the victory in both races, and the Beira city commission gave Frelimo a 52% majority in the municipal assembly. However, the PVT showed that in Nacala no candidate had obtained more than 50% of the votes and, therefore, a second round would be required; and in Beira, no party had an absolute majority in the assembly and, although Frelimo had the largest portion of the vote, its share was only 41%. The Electoral Observatory and EISA submitted the PVT results to the National Electoral Commission immediately after the municipal commissions released their provisional results. When announcing the final results on December 4, the National Electoral Commission confirmed what the PVT had showed: that there would be a second round in Nacala, and no party had obtained an absolute majority in Beira.
The transparency and credibility of the municipal elections was enhanced through conducting voter register testing in 33 municipalities as well as the PVT conducted in 13 municipalities.
EISA, in collaboration with the Electoral Observatory, a coalition of eight Mozambican civil society organisations, conducted a pilot voter register testing in 33 municipalities, ahead of the November 2008 municipal elections. For this pilot testing, a sample of 600 registered voters was selected and the List-to-Voter method was chosen. The testing took place at the same time that the voter register was open to the public for verification. This proved an extremely useful test exercise and highlighted a range of challenges outlined below.
One of the first findings of the testing was that the voter register was not displayed as the law requires and in many places was not even available to the public. Furthermore, the register that was made available was not the computerised version, but rather the handwritten back-up. This back-up does not contain voters' addresses and is sometimes difficult to read. As a result, the List-to-Voter method, which relies on voters' addresses being available on the register, had to be abandoned and replaced with the Voter-to-List method. A few problems of absent names or mistakes with voter card numbers were found, but the overwhelming majority of voters were not aware that a period of public register verification was in process and didn't know where to go to verify if their details on the register were correct. All these findings were communicated to the Election Management Bodies (EMBs) and to other stakeholders of the electoral process. Two well-attended public workshops were held for this purpose.
The technical problems that plagued the initial phase of the voter registration process for the 2008 provincial elections, raised serious questions regarding its credibility. EISA felt that, in order to check the quality of the voters' roll and if possible help restore its credibility, a voters' roll audit should take place after the end of the registration scheduled for March 2008. A voters' roll audit has never been conducted in Mozambique and EISA began working with Mozambican civil society organisations to develop a methodology and implementation plan to conduct a pilot audit in late March/early April 2008.
To endure that post-elections evaluation and identification of followup activities to address such problems, a post 2004 election evaluation workshop was conducted in March 2005 that brought together Mozambican stakeholders as well as representatives from international NGOs operating in Mozambique in the area of elections and the main international observer missions fielded during the 2004 elections.
In order to reinforce the collaboration between the NGOs and political parties EISA promoted a partnership with the Association of Western European Parliamentarians for Africa (AWEPA), the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (IMD) and the Konrad Adenauer Stifting (KAS). In the first part of the workshop national researchers presented on themes such as voter registration, candidates and campaigning, voting process and counting and disputes. In the second presentations were made by the Chair of the Malawi Electoral Commission on the experiences of that country and by EISA's Executive Director on types of EMB's in the SADC.
The workshop was conceived to create a space for an exchange of views on the electoral process between all stakeholders, the discussions were open and constructive and a broad consensus was reached on the main problems and constraints on the Mozambican electoral process. In particular the difficulties created by the partisanship of the National Electoral Commission were emphasised. From this came a report that was published in April 2006 and that was officially requested from EISA by the ad hoc Commission for the Revision of Electoral Legislation.
EISA has been able to provide technical and financial support to civil society actors in to ensure their participation in observing elections in their respective countries. The rationale is to ensure the existence of strong civil society whilst promoting the use of PEMMO as the election assessment tool by domestic groups. EISA believes that locally-based organisations are best placed to ensure the entrenchment of the election principles espoused by PEMMO.
Under this project, EISA helped many civil society actors design training material, took part in training observers and assisted them with the logistical and substantive arrangements of the actual observation exercise, as well as reporting on their observations. Aside from the contribution to designing material and training trainers for the South African elections, as a member of the national South African Civil Society Observation Coalition, EISA provided office space and jointly co-ordinated Gauteng observers with the South African Council of Churches.
EISA Mozambique has been involved since its inception with an initiative of a group of NGOs in Mozambique which established an Electoral Observatory. In collaboration with the Carter Centre, EISA provided technical support for the process of conceptualisation, organisation, training and implementation of parallel vote tabulation operations. With this technical support from EISA, the Electoral Observatory conducted Parallel Vote Tabulation in two elections (the 2003 local elections and 2004 general elections). In 2004 the exercises gave the first indicative results 48 hour after polling stations closed. The projected results were submitted to the Constitutional Court, the National Electoral Commission, political parties and the media on 9 December 2004, the date when the official provincial count was due to be completed. In both instances, in 2003 and 2004, the success of the initiative was indicated by the very low variance between official election results and the PVT's (less than 1% variance). The close correspondence between the projected results and the official results announced by the Electoral Commission, in the context of a general mistrust of election management bodies in Mozambique, were important in building the credibility of the results and that of the election management bodies.
EISA produced a Guide for the Election Observer, with the objective of supporting the activities of citizen observers, which was based on the Principles for Election Management, Monitoring and Observation in the SADC region (PEMMO). The Observer Guide included a code of conduct for observers, some practical guidelines for election observation of the pre election, election and post election phases, a political parties code of conduct and checklists.
EISA also produced handbooks on electoral legislation, in English and Portuguese. It was widely distributed to both citizen and international observers as well as to political parties. The National Electoral Commission disseminated it to its staff throughout the country.
A common practice that has attracted the attention of civil society and the media has been the misuse of public resources to support political party campaigns. This not only creates significant unfair advantages for incumbents, but is also corruption since public resources are misappropriated. To address the issue EISA collaborated with the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa and the Open Society Justice Initiative to implement a regional project in the SADC aimed at raising the awareness of the use of public resources for campaign purposes and this was piloted in Mozambique.
EISA field monitors administered a questionnaire intended to collect raw data on the issue of the (mis)use of state resources for electioneering purposes during the 2004 elections. The report, Monitoring of the Use of Public Resources during the 2004 Campaign, was published by EISA in 2005.